Letters in Health and Biological Sciences
Determinants of Employment Among Well-Educated Refugees Before and After the 2007 U.S. Economic Recession
- 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
- 2International Society of Iraqi Scientists, Michigan, USA
- 3Beamount Hospitals, Cancer Section, Michigan, USA
- 4Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Hikmet, J. Jamil, Department of family Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, 7375 Woodward, Suite 1520Detroit, MI 48202, USA, Tel: (313) 309-1645; E-mail: Hikmet.Jamil@hc.msu.edu
Jamil, H., et al. Determinants of Employment among Well-Educated Refugees before and After the 2007 U.S. Economic Recession. (2016) Lett Health Biol Sci 1(1): 12- 17.
© 2016 Jamil, H. This is an Open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
KeywordsBarriers to employment; Facilitators for employment; Economy; Risk factors; Iraq
Refugees face broad as well as specific barriers to employment and under employment[1-7]. Being employed increases both economic and social integration and, for refugees, offers the opportunity to gain self-esteem, facilitate new social contacts, and to learn or improve English language skills[8-17]. Lack of employment is also a significant risk factor for the development of poor mental and somatic health[8,10-11]. Thus, securing employment for refugees has implications for social, vocational, as well as health benefits[8-9,10,17]. To date, there are limited studies in terms of determinants of refugee labor market participation combined with studying their interaction with the general labor conditions in the host country. For example, economic conditions and whether a country is in recession or not. Typically, studies compare refugee experiences with immigrants from other countries or with host country citizens. Most research has focused on limited cross sectional convenience samples of refugees, and the study population has chiefly been a heterogeneous mix of global refugees[17-18,20]. In addition, these studies did not account for ethnic and cultural comparisons and this makes inference from prior studies difficult to apply to educated refugees as a whole[10,20]. Parallel to these weaknesses, there is a lack of control for the facilitating and barrier determinants, which makes cause-and-effect conclusions difficult to come to in terms of well-educated refugees.