Journal of Dentistry and Oral Care
Severity of Chronic Periodontitis Associated with Two Major Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease in Makah City
- 1Departmet of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Egypt and Umm Alqura University, KSA
- 2Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Al-Ahram Canadian University, Egypt and Umm Alqura University, KSA
- 3Umm Alqura University dental intern Practitioners, KSA
Alaa Moustafa Attia, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Egypt and Umm Alqura University, KSA, Tel: 966538045428; E-mail: email@example.com
Attia, M.A., et al. Severity of Chronic Periodontitis Associated with Two Major Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease in Makah City. (2017) J Dent Oral Care 3(1): 1- 7.
© 2017 Attia, M.A. This is an Open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
KeywordsSeverity; Risk factors; Chronic periodontitis; Makah city
Background: Diabetes mellitus and smoking are considered as two major risk factors that influence the severity and progression of periodontal disease. Severity and prevalence of periodontitis varies in different countries of the world and there are indications that may be extensive in developing more than high developed countries.
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the periodontal conditions and severity of chronic periodontitis patients in relation to smoking and diabetes at Holy Makkah city.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-four patient adult male chronic periodontitis patients were participated in this study, their age ranging from 24 to 60 years old with mean age of 37.50 ± 0.13 years. The patients were selected from enrolled individuals at screening unit in three dental centers at Makkah city. The selection of chronic periodontitis patients were based on two major risk factors in presence or absence of smoking and diabetes mellitus and they categorized into the following four groups G1: Non diabetic nonsmokers, G2: Diabetic nonsmokers, G3: Non diabetic smokers, G4: Diabetic smokers. The periodontal status was evaluated by four clinical parameters: Plaque Index (PI), Bleeding Index (BI), Probing Pocket Depth (PD) and Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL).
Results: The results were revealed the comparisons between the mean values of clinical parameters; PI was highly significant in G2 compared to G1 and G3. BI was significant in G2 versus to G1, and highly significant in G4 contrast to G1and G3. PD was significantly increased in G2 than G1, and highly significant in G4 related to G1, G2 and G3. CAL was significant in G4 compared to G3, highly significantly increased in G4 than G1 and G2, whereas, high significant in G4 contrast to G3. Severity forms of periodontitis in each group categorized into; mild, moderate and severe; G1 (60.72 %, 31.01%, 8.27 %), G2 (33.21%, 50.67 %, 16.12 %), G3 (37.02 %, 49.32 %, 13.66 %) and G4 (9.23 %, 50.42 %, 40.35 %). Severity of periodontitis in whole population; mild (35.04 %), moderate (45.36 %) and severe (19.60%).
Conclusion: The clinical periodontal parameters represent poor periodontal conditions within the population, and presence of smoking and diabetes mellitus exaggerate the severity of periodontitis. Furthermore, widespread survey study is needed to clarify the percentage of prevalence, incidence and severity of periodontitis.